Published in IJCP June 2024
Medicine Update
June 11, 2024 | Veena Aggarwal

WHO Report Highlights Significant Increase in Curable STIs

A new World Health Organization (WHO) report has highlighted a significant increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. Syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, which are curable, account for more than 1 million daily. Cases of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decline, albeit only marginally, from 1.5 million in 2020 to 1.3 million in 2022. Viral hepatitis deaths increased from 1.1 million in 2019 to 1.3 million in 2022… (Source: WHO News. May 21, 2024).

The First Artificial Pancreas for Type 1 Diabetes

CamAPS FX, the artificial pancreas developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This device is designed for individuals with type 1 diabetes and is approved for use in patients aged 2 years and older, including pregnant women. It is an Android app, which links compatible continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps into an artificial pancreas system… (Source: Cambridge University. May 24, 2024).

Prevalence of Colorectal Cases Rising among American Teens

Although low, the rate of colorectal cancer has increased threefold among teenagers in the United States over the past two decades, according to an analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wonder Database. Among children, aged 10 to 14 years, the annual colorectal cancer rates increased by 500% from 1999 to 2020; among teenagers, aged 15 to 19 years, the rates increased by 333%; and by 185% among adults, ages 20 to 24 years… (Source: Medpage Today. May 26, 2024).

Study Suggests Antinephrin Autoantibodies as Biomarkers for Renal Disease

High levels of circulating antinephrin autoantibodies are frequently detected in patients with minimal change disease or idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and may be regarded as markers of disease activity. Over half of the children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (94/182) had detectable antinephrin autoantibodies. Among 105 adults with minimal change disease, antinephrin autoantibodies were detected in 46 (44%)… (Source: NEJM. May 25, 2024).

A Noninvasive mt-sRNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

The US FDA has given the go-ahead to ColoSense, a noninvasive multi-target stool RNA (mt-sRNA) test, for colorectal cancer screening in adult patients aged 45 years or older who are considered to be at average risk for developing colorectal cancer… (Source: HCPLive. May 7, 2024).

Association of Antihypertensive Drugs with Risk of Eczema

Analysis of medical records of 1,561,358 older adults in the UK has demonstrated an association between antihypertensive drugs and risk of eczema with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.29 versus those who were not taking antihypertensives. The highest association was observed for diuretics (HR 1.21) followed by calcium channel blockers (HR 1.16), angiotensin receptor blockers (HR 1.12) and alpha-blockers (HR 1.08). The risk was least for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR 1.02) and beta-blockers (HR 1.04)… (Source: Medscape. May 27, 2024).

Onychopapilloma may be an Indicator of BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome

Onychopapilloma, a rare benign tumor of the nail may be an indicator of BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, which is a genetic condition characterized by cancerous tumors of the skin, eyes, kidneys, and the mesothelium. Onychopapilloma can be diagnosed by the presence of a colored band along the length of the nail and thickening at the distal end of the nail. In patients with diagnosed BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, 88% were found to have onychopapillomas… (Source: NIH. May 17, 2024).

The First mRNA RSV Vaccine for Older Adults

The first-ever mRNA-1345 vaccine (mRESVIA) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) manufactured by Moderna has been accorded US FDA approval. The vaccine, to be available in a prefilled syringe, is intended to protect against lower respiratory tract disease in individuals aged ≥60 years… (Source: MedPage Today. May 31, 2024).

Presenting Signs and Symptoms of Early-onset Colorectal Cancer

Early-onset colorectal cancer, which is diagnosed before 50 years of age most frequently presents with hematochezia and abdominal pain. The other most common symptoms were altered bowel habits and unexplained weight loss. The time period from the onset of these signs/symptoms to diagnosis of colorectal cancer ranged between 4 and 6 months… (Source: JAMA Network Open. May 24, 2024).

Study Suggests Nighttime Heat as a Critical Trigger of Strokes

Warm nights increase the incidence of strokes by 7%, especially for older women. Analysis of data from Germany’s Augsburg Hospital across a 15-year period revealed 11,037 cases of strokes between 2006 and 2020, from May through October, when temperatures are at their highest. Over 80% of the strokes were minor or of moderate-severity. Incidence of ischemic strokes was highest followed by transient ischemic attacks and hemorrhagic strokes… (Source: European Heart Journal. May 21, 2024).

CDC Reports Third Case of H5N1 Bird Flu in the US

CDC has reported the third human case of H5N1 (highly pathogenic avian influenza) following exposure to infected dairy cows in a dairy farm worker from the state of Michigan in the US. Unlike the other 2 cases, which reported only conjunctivitis, this patient has reported upper respiratory tract symptoms, cough without fever, and eye discomfort with watery discharge… (Source: CDC. May 30, 2024).

EMA Approves Dasiglucagon to Treat Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients with Diabetes

The European Medicines Agency (EMA)’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has granted marketing authorization for dasiglucagon for the treatment of children aged ≥6 years, adolescents and adults with diabetes mellitus. Available by the name of Zegalogue, dasiglucagon is a glycogenolytic hormone that raises blood sugar levels by increasing the glycogen breakdown and encouraging the liver to release glucose by activating hepatic glucagon receptors… (Source: EMA. May 30, 2024).

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Autoimmune Diseases

Results from the INSPIRE study show that neuropsychiatric symptoms such as nightmares and hallucinations may be a presentation feature of systemic lupus erythematosus and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases at any stage during the course of the disease. More than half of the patients who reported hallucinations developed these symptoms more than 1 year after the onset of disease… (Source: eClinicalMedicine. May 20, 2024).

Use of Ultrasound to Diagnose Meniscal Injuries in Primary Care

Supplementing history and physical examination with point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) may help primary care physicians to accurately diagnose meniscal injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed meniscal injuries in 6 of the 11 patients who underwent POCUS. These findings were presented at the 2024 Annual Meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine held in Boston…. (Source: Medscape. May 31, 2024).